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Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins

Countermarks on Coins of Augustus & Tiberius, left and right "countermasses" from Moesia

How to best Navigate the Countermark Museum :
By host coins and specific subjects (recommended if you search by host coin)
Individual private collections (these coins are also integrated into the above alphabetical and host coin sections)

If you have any questions or need help, please contact Andreas Pangerl at  (please leave out the blank between our name and the @, this is to discourage spam robots)

Detailed Listing of Museum Content:
Julio-Claudian Countermarks sorted by Host Coins (Augustus - Nero)
1. Countermarks on Coins of Augustus (incl. Tiberius as Caesar)
1.1. Countermarks on Nemausus, Spanish Provincial Coins of Augustus, and early Fleet Coinage
"AVC", "DD", "IMP", "IMP lituus", "P P", little "Wheel",  "Eagle Head",  "AVL", "CPA", "Anchor"

1.2. Countermarks on Lugdunum AEs of Augustus
1.2.1: "ARAT", "AVC", "CA", "CCARN", "CVAL", "IMP lituus", "IMP", "PP", "RC"
1.2.2: "TCPA", "TIB round", "TIB square", "TIBCAVF", "TIBIM", "TICA", "VAR" (and "Q VAR"), "VICIN", large "Wheel"

1.3. Countermarks on Ephesos AEs of Augustus
"AVC" (in combination with "TICAE", "TICA", "helmet", "dolphin"), "TICA"

1.4. Countermarks on Moneyer AEs of Augustus
1.4.1: "AL AR","APRON", "AVC" (in combination with "CAE", "TIB", "PP"), "BPV","CAE", "CAESAR", "CONST", "DD"
1.4.2: "IMP", "IMP AVC", "MD", "S", "SE", "TIB", "TIB AVC", "TIBIM", "TICA", "VAR", "VA", and a variety of "sicilian" pictoral countermarks (male Head with beard, Prora, Helios Head, Standing Helios, Capricorn, Star)

2. Countermarks on Coins of Tiberius
"B", "CAC", CAG", "TIB AVC", "TICA", CAESAR-ligature", "Cornucopia", "Hercules Head"

3. Countermarks on Coins of Caligula
"IMP", "TIAV", "TIBCLAIMP", "TICA", "TI*C*A", plus Caligula's countermarks "CA", "CAG", "CAC" on Julio-Claudian, and Gaius countermarks on Eastern Provincial coins

4. Countermarks on Coins of Claudius
"TIAV", "KL IA-greek", "Hercules Head", "AMR", see also special sections denominational, Vindex, Galba, Vespasianus , and Legionary countermarks

5. Countermarks on Coins of Nero
please see Vindex, Galba, Vespasianus , and Legionary countermarks

Julio Claudian Denominational 

NCAPR Countermarks:

6. Denominational Countermarks on Julio-Claudian Coins
"PROB", "ROB", "PRO",  "PRO" plus "IMP" & "TIAV", "BON", "DV", "DVP", "AS", "S", "XLII", "IIII"

7. "NCAPR", "NERCPP" on Julio-Claudian Coins

Countermarks after Nero: 8. Countermarks of Vindex, Civil War 68/69, Galba, Otho, & Vespasianus
8.1. Vindex:   "X", "SPQR", "SPO", "SPR", "PR",
8.2. Galba and Otho: "GALBA", "GALKAI", "IMPGAL", "IMPOTHO", "IMPVESP"
8.3. Vespasian: "VESPAS", "IMPVES", "IMPVESAV", Capricorn",
9. Later Countermarks (after Vespasianus)
"TONZOY", "DAK", "laureate", "standing Minerva", "Hadrian's Head", later countermarks on Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Severus Alexander, etc., up to the early Byzantine Empire
Countermarks of the Roman Legions: 10. Legionary Countermarks .... see also Roman Legions Main Page
10.1. The Western Empire: "ALAR", "LVI", "VI", "X", "LXV", "XV", "LII"
10.2. The Eastern Empire: "LVIF", "Hadrian's Head", "VI", "XF", "LXF", "LXF with wild boar and dolphin", "Galley", "XII", "Thunderbolt", "LXVA", "LXV", "Palmbranch"
Various Countermarks 11. Various Countermarks
Unknown host Coins
Unknown Context (e.g. "TBC", "Delta Y", "CAESAR" "CAESAR")
Modern countermarks
Private Collections of Roman Countermarks The Richard Baker Collection

The Pangerl Collection

We recommend as Reference Literature:
For Western Countermarks on official Roman coins and their Imitations:
  • Rodolfo Martini, "Nomismata 6: The Pangerl Collection of Julio-Claudian Countermarked Coins ( Augustus-Vespasian)" ca. 310 pages, including 24 plates, reproducing 352 coins, in Italian with extensive English summary, ISBN 88-87235-29-5  -  The first systematic catalogue of Countermarks on official Roman coinage (to contact the publisher directly on where to buy this book: ENNERRE). Better buy it now before it is sold out)
  • "Roman Provincial Coinage" shows a brief summary of countermarks on Roman Provincial coins including those on Spanish Provincial coins
  • "BMC I (Augustus to Vitellius)" provides valuable information on Roman countermarks to the extent of knowledge in 1923
For Eastern Provincial Countermarks on Greek Provinical Coins:
  • For countermarks on Eastern Provincial coins the standard is "Greek Imperial Countermarks" by C. Howgego (out of print for almost 20 years now available as reprint).

Many thanks to the Roman Numismatic Gallery ( for hosting the Museum of Roman Countermarks.


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