Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins
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This section covers
"VESPAS", "IMPVES", "IMPVESAVC", "Capricorn"

"VESPAS" in ligature on (sometimes halved) Nero Asses / Dupondi, applied during the Civilis uprising in Germania Superior and Inferior
(countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 35)

very rare occurance of "VESPA" on a Claudius Sestertius

"IMP VES" commonly on republican denarii, sometimes on augustean denari, and very rare on later coins. Known to us are two pieces on Tiberius, one on Caligula, one on Galba, one on Vespasian. Countermarked in the early reign of Vespasianus likley in Ephesos. (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 100)

on Republican Denari (incl. Legionary types of Marc Antony)

in mirror writing

On a Caesar Denari
on Caesar denari

On a cleopatra / Marc Antony denarius

On Augustean Denari

On Tiberius Denari

On a Caligula Denarius

On a Galba Denarius

On a Vespasian Denarius, clearly an error of the mint

"IMP VES AVC" on cistophorii of Marc Antony and Claudius. Countermarked in the early reign of Vespasianus in Ephesos. (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 101)

To the left a Cistophorus of Marcus Antonius, middle Augustus, to the right a Claudius & Agrippina


Another countermark often attributed to Vespasianus during the civil war is the Capricorn, mostly found on eastern provincial coins. A similiar countermark exists on regular roman coinage from Claudius, likely applied in the balkan region.
The countermark "Capricorn" on Augustus AEs is likely earlier and was applied in Sicily.

Claudius As with Capricorn countermark (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 94)

Claudius Sesterti with "Capricorn plus Instrument below" Countermark (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 94)

another example with instrument (?) below the capricorn

"Capricorn" countermark on roman provinical coin (could also be from Augustus times)

same provincial type with this countermark

another capricorn countermark, combined with Nike, and a holy instrument (?)

"Capricorn" and "Star" above on Augustus Dupondius (This may also be a countermark from Sicilia & applied before Vespasianus) (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 64)