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6. Denominational Countermarks on Julio-Claudian Coins

This section covers
"BON" (Martini Pangerl Collection 42)
"PROB" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 2, MPC 23), "ROB" as variant of PROB
"PRO" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 48)
"PRO" plus "IMP" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 47), "BON" (Martini Pangerl Collection 42), "TIAV" (Martini Pangerl Collection 54),
"DV" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 85)
"DVP" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 46)
"AS" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 39)
"S" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 4)
"XLII" on a Galba As
"IIII" on a Constantine II AE coin

These are countermarks giving worn and imitation coins from the Julio-Claudian period official value, sometimes downgrading them from e.g Sestertius to a Dupondius, or from a Dupond to an As.
The countermarks could be as early as Claudius, and as late as Titus, Nerva, or even Trajan

"BON" on Claudius (?), likely from Nijmegen, NL (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 42)

"BON" on Antonia Dupondius


"PROB" for Probare on Claudius Sestertius (4 examples) (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 2, MPC 23)

"ROB", a variant of "PROB" with the same meaning, on a Claudius Sestertius


"PRO" and "IMP" on Claudius sestertius, Germania Inferior (Noviomagus ?)
"PRO" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 48), "IMP" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 47)

a second one

"PRO" and "IMP" on Claudius Dupond (CERES reverse), countermarks likely from Nijmegen or Xanten

another example, IMP in mirrorwriting


"BON, PRO, IMP" on an AEs of Claudius
"PRO" (countermarkMartini Pangerl Collection 48), "IMP" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 47), "BON" (Martini Pangerl Collection 42)

to the left a Sestertius, to the right a dupondius

dupondius with atypical positioning of the countermarks

"TIAV, PRO, IMP" on Sestertius of Claudius
"PRO" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 48), "IMP" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 47), "TIAV" (Martini Pangerl Collection 54)

"TIAV, BON, PRO, IMP" on Sestertius of Claudius
"PRO" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 48), "BON" (Martini Pangerl Collection 42), "IMP" (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 47), "TIAV" (Martini Pangerl Collection 54)


Countermarks downgrading worn or imitation AE coins from the Julio-Claudian Period

"DV" and punch on obverse of an imitation (or Gallic) Sestertius of Claudius. "DV" is commonly found in the Pannonian/Moesia region and downgrades this underweight Sestertius to a DVpondius. (countermarkMartini Pangerl Collection 85)

more "DV" countermarks on Claudius Sesterti from Moesia region

"DV DV DV" on a Claudius sestertius

"DV" on an imitation coin of Tiberius, while it is normally on imitation coins of Claudius

Halved coin with "DV" countermark

"DV" on a brokage coin

more "DV" countermarks on Claudius sesterti


"DVP"   Similiar countermarks are found in the Rhine region, but as "DVP & punch" on the reverse of Sesterti (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 46)

and as "AS" & punch" on Dupondii downgrading these to an As. (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 39)

The "S" punch on the coin below likely downgrades this worn As to a Semis (countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 4)

More "S" below, the upper maybe is rather a stylized dolphin ?

"XLII" on a Galba As. After the Western Empire had collapsed, Germanic kingdoms took its place it Italy and Northern Africa. The Vandals started minting bronze coins with the denominations of 1, 4, 12, 21, 42, and 83 Nummi, and apparently also brought Sesterti and Dupondi of the first and second centrury AD back into circulation marking their value in Nummi. Such marks are thus known on Sesterti as 83 Nummi (LXXXIII) and on Dupondi as 42 Nummi (XLII). Most interesting in that they prove coins still being in (or having been brought back into) circulation some 500 years after their initial issue. Unpublished is the below example of a IIII mark on a Constantine AE likely belonging to this issue also.
Contrary to these Vandalic issues the Ostrogoths in Italy under Theoderic and his successors seem to have issued bronze along the Byzantine monetary system with 5 (V), 10 (X), 20 (XX), and 40 (XL) nummi coins, often with the legend ROMA INVICTA.

actually not a countermark, but cut into the coin

Below countermark "IIII" on a Constantine II coin, possible Vandalic issue for 4 Nummi.