Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins
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9. Countermarks of later Emperors

This section covers
"TONZOY", " DAK", "laureate", "standing Minerva", "Hadrian's Head",  various other countermarks

Some of these countermarks have quite clearly a military context, mostly related to the Eastern campaigns of Rome against their Persian/Parthian Arch Enemy.

Countermarks with direct legionary context are covered in a separate section of the Roman Numismatic Gallery

Local Countermarks of unknown Period

"TONZOY", a city in Thracia, on AE possibly from the Flavian period

Later Emperors


"DAK"  for the imperial title Dacicus, on a coin of Traian


The countermark "standing Minerva" ,mostly on Flavian AEs of Antiochia is likely of y similiar military context, possibly from Traian's period
on a Vespasian
on a Domitian

on Otho coin from Antiochia

related countermarks could be these two "male heads" on Domitian (maybe from Hadrian's period ?)


Countermark "laureate" frequent on Traianus (left) and rarer on a Hadrianus (right) AEs from Antiochia. This is one of a group of countermarks on Eastern Provincial Coins with possible links to the legionary administration of the Eastern frontier towards Persia.

Some types celebrate the visit of the emperor to the East. The following examples are for Hadrian visiting the East to prepare the war against the Judean uprising in the 130s AD.


Marcus Aurelius
countermarks of a little circle in the center of the obverse of sesterti of Marcus Aurelius are known from Pannonia

Severus Alexander
sestertius, 3 countermarks of unknown origin, seemingly similiar to gold weight marks of the 16th century ( 25, 26, 27 known from flemish-brabant)?


Byzantine Countermarks

Heraclius countermark (Sicilian origin) over full sized follis of Anastasius


Sicilian Countermark of Heraklius on reduced follis of Heraclius