Roman Military Equipment
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Roman Military Equipment

Protective Equipment:   Roman Legionary and Cavalry Helmets

Roman helmets are listed in the table below by type and approx. time period.
(please click on images or underlined links to get to the relevant section with further examples in chronological order)

The corresponding H.Russell Robinson classification (The armour of imperial Rome, for a web-summary see ) is also shown for each helmet type in red italics. This classification is still widely used despite certain inconsistencies. We have not attempted to further use the Robinson Subtypes (ie A-X) as it is debatable if these reflect a true evolution or more regional differences, ie between manufacturers. Our preferred classification remains by found place of the most typical "namegiving" example, ie Montefortino, Weisenau, Kalkriese, etc.
Suggested Attribution  
Time / Period Infantry Infantry Infantry Infantry/Cavalry Infantry/Cavalry Cavalry Cavalry Infantry/Cavalry
Roman Republic
after 300 BC


Jockey Cap of Montefortino Type A-B

Gallic Wars of
Caesar - early Augustus
50 BC - 25 BC
Montefortino (late)

Jockey Cap of Montefortino Type C,D and F

a simple bronze helmet, no crest holders, most probably no cheek pieces but chin strap

Coolus Type A-B

Agen / Port Gallic
Augustus mid
25 BC - 5 BC

montefortino of interim type, used ie during conquest of Raetia and Germania

Joeckey Cap of Montefortino Type C

(large and distinct horizontal neck guard, ears not cut out, crest holder seperately cast and soldered)

Jockey Cap of Montefortino Type E

Coolus Type C

(frontal reinforcement, smaller neckguard, usually ears cut out, but some early examples show no ear protectors)

Imperial Gallic A

Augustus late
5BC - 14 AD
Buggenum   Hagenau

Coolus Type D


Subtype Guttmann

Imperial Gallic B

different face mask types known. Association with helmet types not always certain, usually  heavily decorated

Mask Type Kalkriese
earliest examples from Augustan context, clear evidence for combination with Weisenau helmets

Mask Type Nijmegen-Kops Plateau
earliest examples from Augustan context, clear evidence for combination with Weiler  helmets

Cavalry Sports D

Tiberian -
50 AD
    Hagenau (late)

Coolus Type E-I


Subtype Guttmann

Imperial Gallic C-F
Imperial Italic A-B

likely exclusive for cavalry, with and without face masks

Auxiliary Cavalry A

Helmets with Face Masks

Cavalry Sports 

mid to late first Century       Weisenau types (some with cross bar reinforcements)

Imperial Gallic G-I
Imperial Italic C-F
Auxiliary Infantry B


Auxiliary Cavalry B and G

Helmets with Face Masks

Type Ribchester &
Type Newstead

Cavalry Sports B,C, and E

early to mid 2nd Century AD       late Weisenau types

Imperial Gallic J-K
Imperial Italic G
Auxiliary Infantry C

Imperial Italic H


Auxiliary Cavalry G

Helmets with Face Masks

Mask Type Alexander

Cavalry Sports C

mid - late 2nd Century AD        
mostly  with pronounced cross bar reinforcements

Auxiliary Cavalry C-F

  Helmets with Face Masks

Mask Type Alexander

Mask Type Female

Mask Type Pfrondorf

Cavalry Sports C, E, F

3rd Century AD         Niederbieber
Auxiliary Cavalry C-F and I

Heddernheim 1
(round knob)
Auxiliary Cavalry H 



Cavalry Sports H, I

Helmets with Face Masks

Mask Type Alexander
Mask Type Female
Cavalry Sports
 C, E, F, 

Heddernheim 2
(high ridge crest)
Cavalry Sports G


4th Century              
RIDGE HELMET Eastern - maybe Persian - Origin, iron bowl consists of two halves with articulated  ridge

(Image to follow)



5th Century and later            

Sutton Hoo
6th - 7th century example of a Spangen Helmet with 
face mask 

typical for early Middle Ages, bowl of 4 segments

Disclaimer:  below is not a Roman helmet...... (British celtic helmet, London British Museum)


Related Sections of the Roman Numismatic Gallery:

The  Location of Roman Legions from Caesar to ca. 300 AD is summarized in a table.
Military Equipment
Military Diploma
Roman Legionary Bricks
Countermarks of roman legions on coins are shown in the Legionary Countermark section.
Coins making reference to roman legions are to be found in the Legionary Coin section.
Wars and Victories on Roman coins.
Roman Military Main Page