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Protective Equipment - Roman Helmets:

Montefortino type helmets:

the typical helmet of the Roman republican period, derived from Celtic helmet design, similiar types found from Spain, Gallia, into northern Italy. Mostly found without cheek pieces (which were possibly made of leather in many cases). Later Montefortino helmets are the first helmets proven to be of Roman origin through inscriptions (mostly names of soldiers).
General rule is that the more decoration the earlier the helmet is likely to be. The mass armies after the reforms of Marius end of the 2nd century BC called for mass produced cheap but effective helmets. Little effort was spent on decorating the equipment for the mainly poor legionaries.

Here a soldier wearing a Montefortino type helmet, shown on a golden fibula, British Museum, London. Note that this helmet seems to have no cheek pieces

Celtic helmet related to the Montefortino helmets, copy from RGZM Mainz / Landesmuseum Bonn

Early Montefortino type helmet, formerly of the Guttmann collection, now in a US private collection. With metal cheek pieces.

Montefortino type helmet from the Museo Civico Archeologico di Bologna  (image copyright Museo Civico Archeologico di Bologna)

Montefortino Canosa type helmet (Collection Axel Guttmann)
Images Herrmann Historika Auction

Montefortino, Images Herrmann Historika Auction

Montefortino Helmet of the 1 century BC, Collection Axel Guttmann

Montefortino, British Museum, London


Montefortino, Louvre, Paris

Montefortino Rieti type helmet (ex Collection Axel Guttmann)
Images Herrmann Historika Auction

Montefortino helmet, ca. 1st century BC, RGZM Mainz


Montefortino Buggenum type helmet, ex Axel Guttmann collection, (images Herrmann Historika Auction)
Buggenum helmets are usually without much decoration, simple and practical, and show a wider neck guard than the earlier Montefortino type helmets it is clearly dervied from. This type is thought to have been in use during the period of Caesar (in parallel to the Mannheim type helmets)

Two late Montefortinos (ex Axel Guttmann collection), both displaying damage caused by either intentional destruction or battle. Currently offered for sale in the London art market


Related Sections of the Roman Numismatic Gallery:

The  Location of Roman Legions from Caesar to ca. 300 AD is summarized in a table.
Military Equipment
Military Diploma
Roman Legionary Bricks
Countermarks of roman legions on coins are shown in the Legionary Countermark section.
Coins making reference to roman legions are to be found in the Legionary Coin section.
Wars and Victories on Roman coins.
Roman Military Main Page